Flare science in Kepler, K2 and TESS light curves

AltaiPony finds flares in Kepler, K2, and TESS photometry. You can create a FlareLightCurve, remove systematics and photometric variability, and search it for flares.

K2 light curves are best de-trended using K2SC [5]. For TESS and Kepler we employ a Savitzky-Golay filter. You can use most methods from lightkurve’s KeplerLightCurve and TessLightCurve classes. AltaiPony can be used to inject and recover synthetic flare signatures. Jump to the core class is here. AltaiPony replaces the original Appaloosa [b].


Often, when something does not work in AltaiPony and this documentation is useless, troubleshooting can be done by diving into the extensive lightkurve docs. Otherwise, you can always shoot Ekaterina an email or directly open an issue on GitHub. Many foreseeable problems will be due to bugs in AltaiPony or bad user instructions.

How to cite this work

If you end up using this package for your science, please cite Ilin et al. (2020) [a] and Davenport (2016) [b].

Please also cite lightkurve as indicated in their docs [1].

Depending on the methods you use, you may also want to cite

  • Maschberger and Kroupa (2009) [2] (MMLE power law fit)
  • Wheatland (2004) [3] (MCMC power law fit)
  • Aigrain et al. (2016) [4] and their software [5] (K2SC de-trending)
[a]Ekaterina Ilin, Sarah J. Schmidt, Katja Poppenhäger, James R. A. Davenport, Martti H. Kristiansen, Mark Omohundro (2020). “Flares in Open Clusters with K2. II. Pleiades, Hyades, Praesepe, Ruprecht 147, and M67” https://arxiv.org/abs/2010.05576
[b](1, 2) James R. A. Davenport “The Kepler Catalog of Stellar Flares” The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 829, Issue 1, article id. 23, 12 pp. (2016). https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/829/1/23
[2]Thomas Maschberger, Pavel Kroupa, “Estimators for the exponent and upper limit, and goodness-of-fit tests for (truncated) power-law distributions” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 395, Issue 2, May 2009, Pages 931–942, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.14577.x
[3]Wheatland, Michael S. “A Bayesian approach to solar flare prediction.” The Astrophysical Journal 609.2 (2004): 1134. https://doi.org/10.1086/421261
[4]Aigrain, Suzanne; Parviainen, Hannu; Pope, Benjamin “K2SC: flexible systematics correction and detrending of K2 light curves using Gaussian process regression” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 459, Issue 3, p.2408-2419 https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stw706
[5](1, 2) Aigrain, Suzanne; Parviainen, Hannu; Pope, Benjamin “K2SC: K2 Systematics Correction.” Astrophysics Source Code Library, record ascl:1605.012 https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ascl.soft05012A/abstract